Why Post-Weld Heat Treatments Are So ImportantFebruary 8, 2016
For high quality welding projects, post-weld heat treatment is an essential part of the process. These specific heat treatments drastically decrease the effects of thermal stress that are created during the welding process. Thermal stress occurs because though metal is an extremely strong and durable material, it is still somewhat vulnerable to the extremely high temperatures generated during the welding process. Let’s take a closer look at post-weld heat treatments, or PWHTs as they are sometimes called, and why they are important.
The Importance of Top Quality WeldingWelding is an indispensible tool that allows for the construction and manufacture of piping, pressure vessels, pressure containing parts and structural members. During this process, the molten pool often experiences sudden and extreme temperature increases. As it begins to cool, the metal will be subject to shrinking caused by the sudden thermal stress. This can have a negative impact on quality and chemically alter the structure of the structure of the steel. If this problem is not addressed, the weldment can fail to perform its function, potentially leading to disastrous effects.
What Causes Thermal Stress?There are many causes of thermal stress, but fortunately they can be largely reversed or eliminated with the effective application of post-weld heat treatments. Some of the reasons why thermal stress may occur include the following:
- Layers of metal cause a thermal gradient to form across various sections of the weld.
- Multiple areas of the metal are affected.
- The majority of the steel is at or around ambient temperature.
- Rapid cooling results changes the macro structure of the steel; this can make the steel weaker and less effective.
Factors for StressThe quality of metal is greatly influenced by the rate at which is heated and cooled. Post-weld heat treatments work by lowering the temperature of the metal back down to its original level. The thicker the metal, the more prone the metal will be to falling prey to residual stresses. Other factors that affect the stress level of steel include:
- When two different materials are welded together, their structures have the capacity to change the structure of the base metal.
- If hydrogen is introduced during the welding process, the metal can become prone to cracking and rusting.
- If the weld area is harder than the rest of the steel, the potential for corrosion and shattering increases.
- When weld parts are shaped differently, thermal gradients can form across various parts of the steel.